Production history of heat pump


1834 - Jackob Perkins built the first compression cooling machine with ether as refrigerant.



1846 – french engineers Ferdinand and Edmond Carre designed a chiller, which operation was based on compression and expansion of the air (US patent 8080 from 1851).




1850 - Edmond Carre designed absoprption cooling machine.


1852  - William Tompson (lord Kelvin) proposed practical heat pump system. Tompson called his machine 'the heat multipier'. 








1873 - Karl fon Linde built built in Munich the first compression cooling machine with ammonia as refrigerant. 






1912 - The first heat pump patent was issued in Switzerland. 


1926 – A group of scientists headed by Tomas Midgly started the development of non-toxical and non-flamable refrigerants aiming to substitute ammonia. 





1930 – mass production of freon (R12) has started. It has been used in refrigerators till the end of XX century. 


This was the beginning of heat pumps' development. The first heating unit designed for commercial building was manufactured in England. The machine used heat of ambient air as a low-potential heat source. After this the United States developed few show-case units.



1930 - the heat pump heating system was launched in Lighting headquarters New Heaven in Connecticut. 


1939 – the first large heat pump station built in Zurich. It used the heat of water from the river.


1945 – the first british heat pump for a large building with overall volume 14200 cubic meters installed in Norvich city. Water from the river was used as a heat source. The outlet temperature reached 50 degrees. Cooling medium - SO2.

1952 - 1000 heat pump units were produced in the US. 


1954 -  2000 heat pump units were produced in the US.


1957 -  annual production reaches 20 000 heat pump units.


1963 -  76000 are produced annualy, most of them are installed in southern states where there is a strong need in simultaneous heating and cooling. These heat pumps successfully compete conventional gas heaters.


Energy crisis between 1973 and 1978 pushes the development of heat pump heating systems.  In the beginning such systems were instelled only in luxury buildings, however, due to adaptation modern technologies heat pumps have become affordable for ordinary people. Now they can be installed in new buildings or change old-fashion equipment without alteration of the heating system. 


Ground-source heat pump is installed in the well-known Empire State Building in New York. 







Each year the amount of produced heat pumps rises about 30-40% (sometimes up to 100%).


2004 - 20 000 heat pumps are sold in Germany, 48 000 in Norway. 


Today it is obvious to use heat pumps as an alternative source of energy. We can look at experience of modern countries which use heat pumps technology to understand its prospect. Today in Japan already 3 million of heat pumps are in operation. In the US 1 million of heat pumps produce each year. Half of all heat energy demand of Sweden is covered merely by heat pumps.

There is a strong interest to heat pumps technology in Ukraine...

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